Defining Features[edit | edit source]

Myliobatiformes are more commonly known as stingrays. Typical members of Myliobatiformes are characterized as having a strongly depressed disc, that is rhomboid, oval, or triangular in shape. Myliobatiformes can have stout or long and whiplike tails, some Myliobatiformes have venomous spines or barbs on the tail. Myliobatiformes have enlarged pectoral fins that are fused to the forehead or rostrum, and 5 gill slits located on the ventral or belly side of the ray.

Habitat and Range[edit | edit source]

Myliobatiformes live in tropical and subtropical zones of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Most Myliobatiformes are bottom feeders who live on the seafloor, but some are pelagic. Most stingrays live in coastal waters, but some live in deep ocean.

Fisheries Conservation and Concern[edit | edit source]

Different species of stingrays range in status from having healthy populations to being listed as vulnerable or endangered. Stingrays are commercially fished and sought after for their meat in many parts of the world, particularly outside of the United States. They are also common bycatch on fishing vessels.

Closest Relatives[edit | edit source]

Rhinopristiformes

Example Species in Chimaeriformes[edit | edit source]

Bat Ray[edit | edit source]

Myliobatis californica[edit | edit source]

Reference: http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/onlinelearningcenter/species/bat_ray

Defining Features: The bat ray is a large ray weighing up to 200 pounds with a width of 6 feet. Their long pectoral fins are pointed and resemble bat wings. They have a large venomous barb attached to a long whiplike tale. Their head protrudes more than the majority of rays and they have rather large eyes. Their coloration is dark brown or black in color with a white underbelly.

Range & Habitat: Bat rays habitat ranges from Oregon to the Gulf of California and also the Galapagos Islands. They primarily live in shallow, sandy or muddy areas as well as kelp forests. They can be found at depths of 1-46 meters.

IUCN Concern: Least Concern

Spotted Eagle Ray[edit | edit source]

Aetobatus Narinari[edit | edit source]

Reference: https://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/2034

Defining Features: Spotted Eagle Rays are massive with a maximum width of almost 10 feet and maximum published weight of 507 pounds. They have a pointed v-shaped snout concealing platelike teeth that they use to crush shellfish. They have extremely long tails with venomous barbs attached to them. One of their more distinct features is their coloration which is either black, brown, or grey with white rings or dots.

Range & Habitat: Spotted Eagle rays are found in warm coastal water all over the world. They are usually found in depths of around 200 feet where they swim in schools in the open water.

IUCN Concern: They are near threatened and their population is decreasing.

Example Species in the Gulf of Maine[edit | edit source]

Cownose Ray[edit | edit source]

ref: https://audubonnatureinstitute.org/aquarium/cownose-ray

Rhinoptera bonasus[edit | edit source]

Defining Features:The cownose ray has a dark to golden brown coloring on the top with a white underside. The ray has a long whiplike tail with one or two mildly venomous spines. They get their name from its squared, indented snout that resembles a cow nose. The ray has winglike pectoral fins. Cownose rays migrate long distances in large schools.

Range & Habitat: Cownose rays prefer to live in shallow brackish waters, and like to swim at the surface but they can be found at depths of 72 feet. The cownose ray appears in the Eastern and Western parts of the Atlantic ocean. In the Western Atlantic Ocean they can be found from New England to Florida, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Brazil.

IUCN Concern: The cownose ray is classified as Nearly Threatened. Their inshore habitat and schooling behavior can lead to them being impacted by heavy fishing pressure.

References[edit | edit source]

https://www.fishbase.in/summary/OrdersSummary.php?order=Myliobatiformes

http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/shark_profiles/myliobatiformes.htm

https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/discover-fish/species-profiles/rhinoptera-bonasus/

https://sharksrays.org/

https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/60128/12310195#habitat-ecology

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